Infrastructure is broadly divided into social and economic infrastructure. In the context of NDP I & II, economic infrastructure is concentrated in the Transport, Energy, ICT and Water sectors. Government has promoted infrastructure development to open up productive sectors of the economy and to boost private sector competitiveness by reducing the cost of doing business and linking markets to production centres.
Accelerating accumulation of productive infrastructure services and modern technology to facilitate production and improve productivity is the cornerstone of Uganda’s infrastructure investment agenda under Vision 2040. The transport and works sector currently implements the National Transport Masterplan (2008-2023) and the attendant policies and regulations which provide objectives and strategic direction of the transport sector. The energy sector is implementing the Energy Masterplan (2011) and Strategic Plans. The same is true for the ICT sector under the e-Government Master Plan. (2012)
Both infrastructure investment funding and outcomes have improved in the first decade of Vision 2040. The stock of paved roads stood at 5111 km in FY 2018/19 with 22 ongoing road projects that are at various completion rates. To bolster the country’s competitiveness globally and across the region, the Entebbe International Airport is under rehabilitation and expansion. In addition, four mid-sized aircrafts were acquired in 2019 for the National Airline and preparatory arrangements for the Standard Gauge Railway are underway.
In the energy sector, the installed electricity capacity of the country has increased from 867 MW in 2014 to 1200MW in 2018. This increase is on account of completion of the Isimba Hydro Power Plant (HPP) and the refinancing of the Bujagali HPP. Similarly, the Karuma HPP (600MW) is nearing completion and this will bring electricity supply to about 1800 MW although still below the NDP II target of 2500 MW (2020). This has resulted in increased industrial demand for electricity coupled with grid connections.
On the side of ICT, the National Backbone Infrastructure now traverses 2430 km connecting 253 MDAs (2019). The cost of internet has accordingly reduced from USD 300 per Mbps in 2016 to USD 70 in 2017 and internet connectivity has increased resulting in higher productivity in service delivery. This improvement is attributed to sound policies of Government and support to the private sector in the telecom industry.
- Uganda’s stock of paved national roads has steadily increased from18.1 percent in 2014/15 to 22 percent in FY 2018/19
- Electricity generation has almost doubled within a 5- year period from 867 MW in 2014 to 1200 MW in FY 2019.
- Per Capita Electricity Consumption stood at 72Kwh in 2016.
- The proportion of internet users in the country increased from 35.3% in 2018 to 47.4% in 2019
- The share of arable land under irrigation is 1%
 This figure includes road projects that are nearing completion (at least at 97% completion rate)